Collection and transportation services constitute the biggest part of the management costs of urban solid wastes. Therefore, it is very important that the method chosen for the collection and transportation of solid wastes is sustainable, safe, effective and economical.
URBAN SOLID WASTES (MUNICIPAL WASTES)
Waste is defined as “substances that the owner does not want, need or do not use, that needs treatment and disposal” (UNEP-United Nations Environment Program). Wastes generated in homes and workplaces are defined as urban solid wastes or municipal wastes. Main components of urban solid waste; mixed household wastes, recyclable wastes, hazardous wastes from homes (battery, paint, light bulb, etc.) , commercial or institutional wastes (from workplaces, schools, public buildings, etc.), domestic industrial wastes, garden and marketplace wastes, street and street rubbish and bulky waste (furniture, white goods etc.).
COLLECTION OF URBAN SOLID WASTE –Collection of Solid Waste
The collection of municipal solid waste at its source and transporting it to recycling or disposal facilities involves many technical and operational details. Collection and transportation services constitute the biggest part of the management costs of urban solid wastes. Therefore, it is very important that the method to be chosen for the collection of solid waste is sustainable, safe, effective and economical.
Municipalities determine the waste collection containers, collection vehicles, collection frequency and vehicle routes in their integrated waste management plans. According to the disposal methods selected, wastes can be collected as mixed or separated by type at source (organic, mixed packaging, paper, metal, plastic, etc.).
Many elements must be taken into account when selecting the form of waste collection and collection tools. At the beginning of these are the amount of waste, seasonal conditions, population density, the selected accumulation and collection system, the width of the streets and the structure of the roads of the region where the collection will be carried out, socio-economic characteristics.
Compression garbage trucks are generally used for the collection of domestic waste. These trucks with hydraulic clamping devices can have rear, side or front loading features. In addition, compression garbage trucks with hydraulic crane equipment, hook lifts with hook and hydraulic arms, and open-body dump trucks of various sizes are other equipment preferred for waste collection systems.
Multi-compartment trucks can also be used where packaging waste and organic waste are collected separately. In some crowded big cities, underground container systems are installed for waste collection and specially equipped waste collection vehicles are used.
Wastes are collected in bags or in various types of containers, depending on the type of waste and the way it is collected. Usually waste containers have a capacity of 120 – 1100 Lt. These containers, which have 2 or 4 wheels, are leakproof. There are handles on the sides of the containers suitable for the lifting arms on the collection vehicle.
-Collection of Solid Waste- The most preferred household waste collection vehicles around the world are:
- Hydraulic compression garbage trucks
- Crane-mounted garbage trucks
- Hook-arm garbage trucks
- Dump garbage trucks
Orakcı Machinery manufactures the most preferred hydraulic compression garbage trucks with rear loading. The capacities of these equipment range from 5 to 30 m3 and container lifting arms are suitable for unloading all containers in the range of 120-1,100 Lt. The height of the waste loading chamber of the vehicle is important for the occupational safety and ergonomics of the personnel performing the collection in places where bagged collection is preferred. The hydraulic compacted garbage cans produced by Orakçı Makine have an openable rear hopper cover to provide optimum manual loading height.
While the density of the wastes in the collection containers is 60-120 kg / m3, thanks to the hydraulic compression mechanism, it can be up to 360-650 kg / m3 in the compression vehicle. The hydraulic compression units produced by Orakçı Makine are designed to reach the most efficient carrying capacity.
When choosing a vehicle, the type of waste to be collected is also have great importance. Organic waste or mixed wastes which is mainly based on organic waste should be transported by high compression and sealed vehicles. Okracı Machinery cases are designed to avoid leaking garbage water while providing maximum carrying capacity. Domestic waste such as earthmoving waste, ash, slag should be collected by open-cased vehicles without compression equipment.
The damper cases of the Orakcı Machinery can be used for all waste that is not suitable for compression. Recyclable packaging waste is collected and transported by vehicles with little compression capability. If desired, the amount of compression of the garbage crates with hydraulic compression of the Orakcı Machinery can be adjusted so as not to damage the packaging waste. If glass waste is collected separately, it should be collected with special piggy banks and collection tools.
A detailed field study is required to optimize the routes of collection vehicles. If disposal sites are far from residential areas, transfer stations can be installed and operated to reduce transport costs.Transfer stations are facilities where waste is transferred from small-volume garbage collection vehicles to large-volume vehicles such as trucks. In collection of solid waste waste collection vehicles bring the wastes to the transfer stations and after discharging, they can return to the settlement where they collected quickly. Large-capacity vehicles, on the other hand, transport waste collected by more than one vehicle to disposal facilities at once.
In addition, equipment that can transfer waste from a small vehicle to a large vehicle can also be used at the collection site. With the OMN (Orakcı monoblock trash can) produced by Orackı Machinery, it can transfer large capacity garbage vehicles to the work area where they are located without the need for a transfer station. The use of these tools and equipment is the most economical and practical solution, especially when collecting and transporting waste from old and historical urban centers where large vehicles cannot enter, where there are narrow streets.
For public health and environmental protection, it is very important that waste collection is carried out on scheduled days and hours. The public should be adequately informed and supervised about the collection programme. Collection frequency and hours should be determined according to needs, collection tools should strictly obey to this order and the public should be provided to remove their waste at planned times and ways. The performance and efficiency of waste collection and transportation services can also be easily monitored with various computer programs and vehicle tracking systems.
The success of urban solid waste management is possible with a properly planned system from environmental, technical and socio-economic points of view.
|Collection of Solid Waste|